Sign In

Skip to main content

The Pay Equity Office’s head office is temporarily closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, we continue to serve the public. Go to our “Contact Us” page for more information.
Pay Equity Ontario > English (Canada) > Learn More > Research and Resources

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​The internet has an infinite quantity of research related to pay equity and women’s economic empowerment. Here are a few resources that we think you might be interested in. ​​The following links will take you to external sites.


Research and Resources 


Research and Resources - Ontario

2021 Ontario Economic Report. (2021). Ontario Chamber of Commerce.

Labour Market Report, May 2021. (2021). Government of Ontario.

Ontario's Long Term Report on the Economy. (2014). Ontario Ministry of Finance.

Ontario's Strong 2019 Labour Market Performance. (2020). Financial Accountability Office of Ontario.

Know Your History on Pay Equity. (2017). Ceta Ramkhalawansingh, Institute for Research on Public Policy.

Workplace Discrimination and Trans People in Ontario ( (2011). Trans PULSE.

Confronting the Gendered Economic Impacts of COVID-19 in Ontario. (2020). Ontario Chamber of Commerce.

Research and Resources - Canada

Business Development Bank of Canada.

Gender-Based Analysis Plus (GBA+). Government of Canada.

Gender Differences in Employment One Year into the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Analysis by Industrial Sector and Firm Size. (2021). Grekou, Douwere and Lu, Yuqian.

How Much Do They Make? New Evidence on the Early Career Earnings of Trade Certificate Holders. (2021). Finnie, R., Dubois, M., & Miyairi, M.

Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Productivity Growth in Canada. (2021). Wang, Weimin.

Pandemic Threatens Decades of Women's Labour Force Gains. (2020). Royal Bank of Canada.

Study: A Labour Market Snapshot of Black Canadians During the Pandemic. (2021). Statistics Canada.

Study: Gendered Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Proportion of Youth Neither in Employment nor Education at the Start of the School Year. (2021). Statistics Canada.

Table 14-10-0287-03 Labour force characteristics by province, monthly, seasonally adjusted. Statistics Canada. 

Table 14-10-0296-01 Labour force characteristics by occupation, monthly, unadjusted for seasonality (x1,000). Statistics Canada.

Table 14-10-0340-02 Average and median gender wage ratio, annual. Statistics Canada.

The Gender Wage Gap in Canada: 1998 to 2018. (2019). Pelletier, Patterson, and Moyser.

The Power Gap. (2021). The Globe and Mail.

The Power of Parity: Advancing Women's Equality in Canada. (2017). McKinsey Global Institute.           

The Gender Pay Gap | Wage Gap in Canada | The Facts ( (2019). Canadian Women's Foundation

Parental leave: Why we need to talk about fatherhood | Gender and the Economy ( (2019). Institute for Gender and the Economy.

Transitioning Employers: A survey of policies and practices for trans inclusive workplaces | Gender and the Economy ( (2020). Institute for Gender and the Economy.

Budget 2021: Supporting Women. (2021). Government of Canada.

Almost Half of Mothers in Canada Are “Reaching Their Breaking Point". (2021). Survey by Canadian Women's Foundation.

Mind the Gap. The Post-COVID Gender Gap in Canada's Cities CUI Insights: A Conversation Primer. (2021). Canadian Urban Institute.

COVID Signpost: 365 Days. (2021). Canadian Urban Institute.

Key Insights on Diversity & Inclusion. (2020). HRPA and Diversio Report.

How Employers Can Advance Equality and Diversity. (2019). Report from the Symposium on Women and the Workplace. Government of Canada.

An Intersectional Approach to COVID-19 She-Covery. (2020). Rezaee, J. R. YWCA.​​

Research and Resources - Global​

Diversity Wins: How Inclusion Matters. (2020). McKinsey & Company.

Economic Gains from Gender Inclusion: Even Greater than you Thought. (2018). Lagarde, Christine and Ostry, Jonathan D.

The Power of Parity: How Advancing Women's Equality Can Add $12 Trillion To Global Growth. (2015). McKinsey Global Institute.           

The Gender Pay Gap Situation in the EU. (2021). European Commission.

Gender Pay Gap in EU Fact Sheet. (2020). European Commission.

Gender Wage Gap in EU Countries. (2019). European Commission.

The Gender Pay Gap in Europe from a Legal Perspective. (2010) European Commission.

Girl Power. (2017). Jovanović, M.

How Closing the Gender Labour Market Activity and Pay Gap Leads to Economic Growth. European Institute for Gender Equality.

Pay Transparency: Commission proposes measures to ensure equal pay for equal work. (2021) European Commission.

Pay Transparency Fact Sheet: equal pay for women and men for equal work. (2021) European Commission.

Promoting equity: Gender-neutral job evaluation for equal pay. A step-by-step guide. (2009). International Labour Organiation.    

Logib – Swiss federal government's equal pay self-test tool to verify wage equality between women and men. (2020). Government of Switzerland.

Closing the Gender Gap: the economic benefits of bringing more women into the labor force are greater than previously thought. (2019). Era Dabla-Norris and Kalpana Kochhar, IMF.

Why professional women may enact intentional invisibility | Gender and the Economy ( (2018). Institute for Gender and the Economy.

Equal is not equitable: A look at gender-neutral parental leave policies in academia | Gender and the Economy ( (2018). Institute for Gender and the Economy.

The origins of the gender gap | Gender and the Economy ( Institute for Gender and the Economy.

How closing the gender labour market activity and pay gap leads to economic growth. (2016).  European Institute for Gender Equality.

Women in the Workplace Study. (2020). McKinsey and

The Pursuit of Gender Equality. (2017). OECD.

When Gender Diversity Makes Firms More Productive. (2019). Harvard Business Review Research.

How to Identify — and Fix — Pay Inequality at Your Company. (2020). Harvard Business Review.